Not long ago, I discovered about physiological conditioning and its beneficial effects for seedlings establishment. Does this practice also occurs for large crops seeds?

    Actually, the physiological or osmotic conditioning brings benefits to the establishment of the seedlings in the field, by standardizing the emergence. It is a technology used mainly in vegetable seeds, in which the volumes are relatively small. For large crops, the process still needs to be improved, considering that it involves seed moisture.

    I dedicate myself to the production of cotton seeds, which often presents low quality after harvesting. However, generally the fields are  sampled 15 days earlier without showing any problems and since then there has been no rain in the production area. What could be the problem? 

    There are several causes that may affect seed physiological quality; the main one is field deterioration, in which the mature seeds await the harvest in the field. This occurs because the seed maturation is uneven, that is, some may be ripe at 13% moisture, while others are green at more than 40% moisture content. To minimize field deterioration, it is recommended to harvest with some green seeds in the bulk.

    I see many farmers sowing soybean in the “dry” to ensure good logistics of activities and achieve sowing at the ideal time. Is there any risk for the crop establishment ? 

    To germinate, the seed needs water, adequate temperature, substrate and oxygen. In the case of sowing in the dry, there will not be enough water to germinate, however, in the vast majority of cases, the seed will soak water, activating its metabolism. Thus, if it passes more than three days without rainfall, the seeds may be dead. In the event that sowing is performed in the powder, the seed should be coated with a polymer to minimize the effects of rapid soaking after rain. 

    Recently, I heard that it is possible to cover seeds with various products, such as hormones and micronutrients. What would be in practice the limitations of this technology? 

    The process of seed treatment with various products requires that the resulting syrup be tested for phytotoxicity and synergistic effects mainly negative (inhibition of some active ingredient). Seed treatment also involves dosing, seed coverage, dust release, among other aspects that must be considered. Treatment may be considered to increase seed performance.

    I have often heard that in Brazil, soybean is patented and there is a need to pay royalties to obtain the seeds. Could you explain briefly?

    In Brazil, soybean is not patented; what exists is the protection of cultivars for those who create and develop new materials, and patent for processes, resulting in something new and creative. In the case of protection of cultivars, there is a royalty for those who buy seed, while in the patent, there is the Technological Tax for cultivars that use the processes to provide a gain to the farmer. In Brazil, RR2Bt soybean cultivars are patented.

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